Goethe as Gourmand I wrote in an earlier post November 30, that Goethe liked good food and wine.
Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 28 August ; d. Weimar, Germany, 22 March zoology, botany, geology, optics. Born of middle-class parents—his father, Johann Kaspar Goethe, was a lawyer—Goethe obtained a degree in law at Strasbourg in He was summoned inon the basis of his literary fame, to the court of Weimar, where his duties soon included the supervision of mining in the duchy.
He was raised to the nobility in In religion he was never orthodox, although he did not deny God or immortality. Much of his theorizing in biology was based on belief in a Spinozistic God as Nature and on the conviction that his own mind could come to know the mind of this deity.
It was published first inwith a long postscript on the history of research on the problem and the controversy the manuscript had evoked.
Long before Goethe it had been noted that, of the three sutures—external facialnasal, and palatal—which delimit the bone when it is present in the vertebrate upper jaw, the palatal is sometimes visible in human skulls, is more distinct in children than in adults, and can best be seen in embryos.
Goethe was struck by the fact that in some mammals for example, ruminants the premaxilla is indisputably Goethes plotting essay even though the upper incisor teeth, which it normally supports, are absent.
He inferred that if present even in such cases, it is unlikely to be absent in man, in whom upper incisors are well developed; and so he sought and found traces of the nasal and palatal sutures in human skulls.
Loder, the Jena anatomist, and later J. Blumenbach maintained that the inference would be justified only if the sutures were clearly visible. In fact the facial suture is never seen, and the two others are indistinct or absent. Goethe believed that to deny man the premaxilla would be to impugn the unity of nature.
He did not argue that similarities between genera are due to descent from common ancestors, for he understandably lacked the modern concept of specialization. Thus characters in apes and in sloths which are today attributed to a high degree of adaptation to arboreal conditions appeared to him as sheer lack of proportion.
In botany Goethe found it difficult to divide some genera into distinct species with no transitional forms, since the classification was based on characters particularly leaf structures which were highly variable. This diversity suggested to him that species were in some way flexible, and he even allowed following Georges Buffon that differences in climate and food could lead to the evolution of one plant or animal species from another within the same genus.
Thus he regarded an extinct species of bull, fossils of which were found near Stuttgart inas possibly the ancestor of the modern European and Indian bull. Goethe thought that the biologist, by comparing a large number of plant and animal forms, can obtain a clear idea of the underlying archetypes.
Having found at least traces of the premaxilla in cetaceans, amphibians, birds, and fishes, he inferred that a structure so widely distributed must be part of the vertebrate archetype and must therefore be represented in all vertebrates, including man.
Goethe also constructed his idea of the archetype from a study of function. A bone which is not only present in most vertebrates but also obviously serves an important feeding function both when it supports upper incisor teeth which have a nipping action against the incisors of the lower jaw, and when it forms a toothless, hard pad against which the lower incisors bite is likely, for both these reasons, to belong to the archetype.
He stressed the stability of function and thought that a bone or organ which performs a function in one animal will be present to perform the same function in another—although he realized that in some few cases an organ functional in some animals may occur as a rudiment in others; and he emphasized that a functional organ may be drastically reduced if other structures are extended.
He said, for instance, that the lion, with upper incisors and canines, cannot have horns. Fossil evidence has since shown that there is no incompatibility, since some extinct horned ungulates have the full eutherian dentition.
Goethe countered by asking why Providence did not supply the sheep with horns, or, when they have horns, why they are curled round their ears so as to be useless. His view was that ruminants, with no upper incisors or canines, have horns because horns, or some alternative to them consistent with the principle of compensation, belong in the mammalian archetype.Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
The German poet, dramatist, novelist, and scientist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (), who embraced many fields of human endeavor, ranks as the greatest of all German poets.
Of all modern men of genius, Goethe is the most universal. Goethe Etc. Friday, August 28, Happy Birthday, Goethe! astrologers themselves have devoted themselves to plotting his natal chart.
For a full "Astro-databank" on Goethe, (See Manfred Osten's essay on "'Alles veloziferisch' oder Goethes Entdeckung der Langsamkeit.") Earlier, however, in the s, Goethe had been less "progressive.
A century before psychoanalytic discourse codified a scientific language to describe the landscape of the mind, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe explored the paradoxes of an interior self separate from a conscious self.
Though long acknowledged by the developers of depth psychology and by its historians. History of Narratology: A Rejoinder Monika Fludernik. Monika Fludernik. Search for other works by this author on: This Site.
Hilary Forthcoming a “Ontological Plotting:Narrative As a Multiplicity of Temporal Dimensions,” in. Narratologia. 4, edited by John Pier (Berlin: de Gruyter).
An Essay in the History of Narratology,” Poetics. Plotting in the pic's second half not only follows the stories of the competing lovers, who in the meantime have become friends, but also cleverly weaves in a third storyline that becomes increasingly entangled in the other two, and finally serves as the initial inspiration for Goethe's literary breakthrough, "The Sorrows of Young Werther.
Goethe’s plotting Essay. 0.
This romanticism can be seen in Goethe’s plotting. as he has the church bell remind Faust of his childhood so that the character does non perpetrate suicide early in the drama.
Besides. the love matter with Gretchen leads to the drama’s flood tide. References Faust Supplemented Study Guide: Retrieved from.