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A unifying framework for thinking about processes — or sequences of tasks and activities — that provides an integrated, dynamic picture of organizations and managerial behavior.
Many modern organizations are functional and hierarchical; they suffer from isolated departments, poor coordination, and limited lateral communication. All too often, work is fragmented and compartmentalized, and managers find it difficult to get things done. Scholars have faced similar problems in their research, struggling to describe organizational functioning in other than static, highly aggregated terms.
In the broadest sense, they can be defined as collections of tasks and activities that together — and only together — transform inputs into outputs. Within organizations, these inputs and outputs can be as varied as materials, information, and people.
Common examples of processes include new product development, order fulfillment, and customer service; less obvious but equally legitimate candidates are resource allocation and decision making. Over the years, there have been a number of process theories in the academic literature, but seldom has anyone reviewed them systematically or in an integrated way.
Process theories have appeared in organization theory, strategic management, operations management, group dynamics, and studies of managerial behavior. The few scholarly efforts to tackle processes as a collective phenomenon either have been tightly focused theoretical or methodological statements or have focused primarily on a single type of process theory.
First, processes provide a convenient, intermediate level of analysis. Most studies have been straightforward descriptions of time allocation, roles, and activity streams, with few attempts to integrate activities into a coherent whole.
A process approach, by contrast, emphasizes the links among activities, showing that seemingly unrelated tasks — a telephone call, a brief hallway conversation, or an unscheduled meeting — are often part of a single, unfolding sequence.
From this vantage point, managerial work becomes far more rational and orderly. My aim here is to give a framework for thinking about processes, their impacts, and the implications for managers.
I begin at the organizational level, reviewing a wide range of process theories and grouping them into categories. The discussion leads naturally to a typology of processes and a simple model of organizations as interconnected sets of processes.
In the next section, I examine managerial processes; I consider them separately because they focus on individual managers and their relationships, rather than on organizations. I examine several types of managerial processes and contrast them with, and link them to, organizational processes, and identify their common elements.
I conclude with a unifying framework that ties together the diverse processes and consider the implications for managers.
Organizational Processes Scholars have developed three major approaches to organizational processes. They are best considered separate but related schools of thought because each focuses on a particular process and explores its distinctive characteristics and challenges.
Davenport, Process Innovation Boston: Harvard Business School Press,p. Any activity or group of activities that takes an input, adds value to it, and provides an output to an internal or external customer. McGraw-Hill,p. Structure, Systems, and Process St.
West,p. It is shaped as much by the pattern of interaction of managers as it is by the contemplation and cognitive processes of the individual. Sage,pp. Van de Ven and G. Work Processes The work process approach, which has roots in industrial engineering and work measurement, focuses on accomplishing tasks.
It starts with a simple but powerful idea: These chains are called processes and can be conveniently grouped into two categories: Operational and administrative processes share several characteristics.
Both involve sequences of linked, interdependent activities that together transform inputs into outputs. Both have beginnings and ends, with boundaries that can be defined with reasonable precision and minimal overlap. And both have customers, who may be internal or external to the organization.
The primary differences between the two lie in the nature of their outputs. Typically, operational processes produce goods and services that external customers consume, while administrative processes generate information and plans that internal groups use.between strategic management and organizational performance, the study also indicate that there is a statistically significant moderate positive relationship between strategic management and organizational performance on the basis of the findings, the researchers.
The purpose of strategic human resource management is to improve business performance through people management.
The organizations need to manage their human resources effectively and efficiently to achieve the desired goals and objectives.
The achievement the goals and objectives translate also in better performance. The Effect of Top Management Team Performance and Cohesion on Organizational Outcomes Aaron J.
Kraus, Liberty Mutual Insurance and determine the strategic plan for an organization, so they have significant influence success by improving top management team . Strategic management is the comprehensive collection of ongoing activities and processes that organizations use to systematically coordinate and align resources and actions with mission, vision and strategy throughout an organization.
Galbreath () to establish the effects of strategic management practices on CSR performance. Also to fill the gap by the studies done on the effect of strategic management practices on.
The Performance Management System at Luminex Organization Words | 3 Pages. Executive Summary The Performance Management (PM) system refers to the organization activity to ensure that employees work is aligned with the company strategic objectives, vision and the goals are met consistently and efficiently.