Findings to the investigation revealed that: In cardiac diagnostics, the foremost challenge in using a like device is the wireless transfer of data and power from within the blood vessel to external devices; whilst maintaining unrestricted blood flow through the artery. Using bar-code technology and medication observation methodology for safer medication administration.
Related chapters Atrial fibrillation: Prevalence of atrial fibrillation correlates strongly with age. The overall prevalence in a Western population is 1. Indeed, the strongest risk factor for developing atrial fibrillation is age. Other significant risk factors are as follows: Moreover, certain other tachyarrhythmias predispose to developing atrial fibrillation: All clinically relevant aspects of atrial fibrillation — from risk factors, complications, electrophysiological mechanisms, ECG interpretation to management — are discussed in this chapter.
However, the increased risk in mortality is not completely explained by the increased risk of stroke; people with atrial fibrillation are at increased risk of Atrial fibrillation essay mortality in general. Fortunately, the treatment of atrial fibrillation has come a long way.
Rhythm control, on the other hand, attempts to restore sinus rhythm by use of antiarrhythmic drugs. Randomized controlled trials have not demonstrated any clear difference in mortality when comparing rate and rhythm control.
Both rate and rhythm control reduces morbidity, mortality and improves quality of life. In such individuals, screening with ECG may reveal atrial fibrillation. Most individuals, however, do experience symptoms and they do so before developing complications. Dizziness is also common.
Syncope, however, is uncommon. Atrial fibrillation debuting with congestive heart failure is uncommon among persons with previously normal left ventricular function. ECG in atrial fibrillation The hallmark of atrial fibrillation is absence of P-waves and an irregularly irregular i.
The baseline isoelectric line between QRS complexes is characterized by either fibrillatory waves f-waves or just minute oscillations. Fibrillatory waves are small with varying morphology and high frequency to waves per minute. The amplitude of f-waves may vary from small to large.
Large f-waves must not be mistaken for flutter waves F-waves which are seen in atrial flutter. Atrial fibrillation with fibrillatory waves f-waves. The hallmarks of atrial fibrillation are: Atrial fibrillation without visible f-waves.
Instead there is minute oscillations of the baseline. The ventricular rate is completely irregular, typically in the range of to beats per minute. The patients age, active medications and concomitant AV-blocks modify the ventricular rate. Example of lead ECG with atrial fibrillation. Classification of atrial fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is classified according to the duration of the arrhythmia.
First diagnosed atrial fibrillation: Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation has a duration of less than 7 days. The arrhythmia is self-terminating in the vast majority of cases and it typically lasts less than 48 hours.
Long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation: Whether the arrhythmia converts to sinus rhythm spontaneously or by means of cardioversion electrical or pharmacological does not affect the classification.
Once persistent, the number of episodes with persistent atrial fibrillation tend to increase until the arrhythmia is long-standing persistent. It should be noted, however, that some patients have paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation throughout their disease course, while others never return to sinus rhythm after a first diagnosis.
Treatment with ablation is only meaningful in paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation. Treatment with anticoagulants, rate control or rhythm control should be considered in all types of atrial fibrillation.
This type of atrial fibrillation has a good prognosis and generally do not require anticoagulation therapy. This has therapeutic implications as valvular atrial fibrillation is much more difficult to convert to sinus rhythm.Atrial fibrillation is a disease process that can be very difficult to understand and treatment can be complicated.
Patient education guides are necessary to provide the patients with easy to understand information that they can refer back to and build off of.4/4(1). Atrial fibrillation is a common cardiac arrhythmia with serious complications if not treated correctly.
This essay will discuss the initial clinical presentation of the patient and examine the management and outcome of the interventions applied. Atrial Fibrillation is defined as rapid and irregular atrial contractions that result in ineffective emptying of the atria.
The two upper chambers (atria) beat out of sync with the two lower chambers (ventricles).
Atrial fibrillation is the most common form of cardiac arrhythmia; it involves the two upper chambers of the heart known as the atria. During atrial fibrillation the normal pulses generated by the sinoatrial node are overcome by the electrical pulses that are generated in the atria and pulmonary.
Atrial fibrillation (also called AFib or AF) is a quivering or irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia) that can lead to blood clots, stroke, heart failure and other heart-related complications.
Introduction. Atrial fibrillation is the most common form of cardiac arrhythmia; it involves the two upper chambers of the heart known as the atria.