In turbulent 18th century Germany in the midst of a religious movement called Pietism, two men, Eberhard Ludwig Gruber and Johann Friedrich Rock, advocated faith renewal through reflection, prayer and Bible study. Their belief, one shared by many other Pietists, was that God, through the Holy Spirit, may inspire individuals to speak. This gift of inspiration was the basis for a religious group that began meeting in and became known as the Community of True Inspiration.
Photograph by Polly M. Rettig, Landmark Review Project, The Amana Colonies were one of many utopian colonies established on American soil during the 18th and 19th centuries. There were hundreds of communal utopian experiments in the early United States, and the Shakers alone founded around 20 settlements.
While great differences existed between the various utopian communities or colonies, each society shared a common bond in a vision of communal living in a utopian society. The definition of a utopian colony, according to Robert V. Hine, author of California's Utopian Colonies, "consists of a group of people who are attempting to establish a new social pattern based upon a vision of the ideal society and who have withdrawn themselves from the community at large to embody that vision in experimental form.
The more familiar non-monastic religious communal movements typical in Western society have generally originated from a deliberate attempt among various Christian sects to revive the structure of the primitive Christian community of first-century Jerusalem, which "held all things in common" Acts 2.
This essay explores the origins and development of the Utopian idea and its arrival in the United States before giving examples of nineteenth century utopian colonies and some organizations on their ultimate demise.
The Greek philosopher Plato ? Origins of the Utopian Idea: The western idea of utopia originates in the ancient world, where legends of an earthly paradise lost to history e. Eden in the Old Testament, the mythical Golden Age of Greek mythologycombined with the human desire to create, or recreate, an ideal society, helped form the utopian idea.
Describing a perfect political and social system on an imaginary island, the term "Utopia" has since entered the English language meaning any place, State, or situation of ideal perfection. Both the desire for an Edenic Utopia and an attempt to start over in "unspoiled" America merged in the minds of several religious and secular European groups and societies.
The 19th-century utopian sects can trace their roots back to the Protestant Reformation. Following the early Christian communities, communal living developed largely within a monastic context, which was created by Saint Benedict of Nursia ?
ADwho founded the Benedictine order. During the Middle Ages a communal life was led by several lay religious groups such as the Beghards and Brothers and Sisters of the Free Spirit.
In allowing the sexes to live in the same community these societies differed from the earlier Catholic and Orthodox monasteries.
The Protestant Reformation, which originated with the teachings of Martin Luther and John Calvinchanged western European societal attitudes about the nature of religion and work. One of Luther's beliefs broke with the medieval conception of labor, which involved a hierarchy of professions, by stressing that all work was of equal spiritual dignity.
Calvin's doctrines stressed predestination, which stated that a person could not know for certain if they were among God's Elect or the damned.Sep 15, · Ask Reno60 about Amana Colonies National Historic Landmark 1 Thank Reno60 This review is the subjective opinion of a TripAdvisor member and not of TripAdvisor LLC TripAdvisor reviews.
- Middle Amana, the last of the seven villages, is established. - Last party arrives from Ebenezer; the move to Amana is complete. - Work on the Millrace canal is started (and completed in ). - Christian Metz dies and is buried in Amana.
- The community reaches its peak population of 1, Moore, Frank M., "The Amana Society, Accommodation of Old World Beliefs in a New World Frontier Setting" (). Faculty Scholarship - yunusemremert.com Since Amana was a closed commune until the twentieth century, few outsiders visited the colonies in three-page essays she wrote on various aspects of Amana life and history.
The Amana Colonies were one of many utopian colonies established on American soil during the 18th and 19th centuries.
There were hundreds of communal utopian experiments in the early United States, and the Shakers . Nov 16, · Haha Look ohh marshmello is here in amana water park! watch nyo too ===== Waatzup kayo jan!!
Click mo na yung "SUBSCRIBE" button para makasali ka sa Elite Army! Sama mo narin yung "BELL" button. The Amana colonies were able to sustain themselves for a long time period because of their economic success.
They were very productive and efficient in their labor efforts. A lasting legacy of the Amana colonies is the refrigerator company 'Amana', now a subsidary of Whirpool.